A Test Case is a set of actions executed to verify a particular feature or functionality of your software application.
This tutorial describes test case designing and the importance of its various components.
Now, consider the Test Scenario Check Login Functionality there many possible cases like
Test Case 1: Check results on entering valid User Id & Password
Test Case 2: Check results on entering Invalid User ID & Password
Test Case 3: Check response when the User ID is Empty & Login Button is pressed, and many more
This is nothing but a Test Case. Test scenarios are rather vague and cover a wide range of possibilities. Testing is all about being very specific. Hence, we need Test Cases
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Now just Consider the test case, Check the response on entering valid Agent Name and password. It's obvious that this test case needs input values viz. Agent Name & Password
This is nothing but Test Data. Identifying test data can be time-consuming and may sometimes require creating test data afresh. The reason it needs to be documented
Before we proceed ahead to consider a quote from a witty man who said "To ensure perfect aim, shoot first and call whatever you hit the target" But if you do not live by this philosophy, which I am sure most of you do not then your Test case must have an expected result.
For our test case, the expected result would be, Login should be successful
If expected results are not documented, we may miss out on small differences in calculations in results that otherwise look OK.
Consider this example, where you are calculating monthly pay for an employee which involves lots of calculations. The need for documenting expected results becomes obvious.
Suppose the author of the test case has left the organization or is on a vacation or is sick and off duty or is very busy with other critical tasks and you are recently hired and have been asked to execute the test case. Since you are new, it would certainly help to have test steps documented which, in this case, would be Launch application, Enter Agent Name, Enter Password, Click OK
You may wonder that for this simple test steps, documentation is not required
But what is your test steps looked something like this? (pic in the video) I think the need will become instantaneously obvious.
That apart your test case -may have a field like, Pre - Condition which specifies things that must in place before the test can run
For our test case, a pre-condition would be Flight Reservation Application should be installed, which I am sure 50% of the people watching this tutorial do not have
Also, your test case may also include Post - Conditions which specifies anything that applies after the test case completes.
For our test case, a postcondition would be time & date of login is stored in the database
During test case execution, you will document the results observed in the Actual Results column and may even attach some screenshots and based on the results give PASS & FAIL status.
This entire table may be created in Word, Excel or any other Test management tool. That's all to Test Case Design